Kerimova K.M., Ahmedzade G.A., Babayeva G.H.
STANDARDIZATION ISSUES FOR FECAL CALPROTECTIN MEASUREMENT IN INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE
Abstract: Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a non-invasive marker of intestinal inflammation that is often used to guide therapeutic decisions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Each step in FC measurement can influence the results, leading to misinterpretation and potentially affecting the management of patients with IBD. To date, FC measurements are highly heterogeneous, and none of the existing methods is generally accepted as a standard. Aim: to provide a clear position on the preanalytical and analytical steps of FC measurement and to minimize the risk of misinterpretation. Materials and methods. A systematic search of the scientific literature was carried out in the PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until June 2021 to identify all studies reporting data on FC measurement (for the key phrases "fecal markers of inflammation", "calprotectin", "inflammatory bowel diseases"). Results. Based on available data, quantitative tests should be preferred to measure FC; FC measurements should always be performed using the same method, and factors affecting his levels should be taken into account when interpreting results. Conclusion. FC concentrations determine treatment decisions by physicians. Although FC is playing an increasingly important role in the management of IBD patients, large multicenter studies should be conducted to determine the reproducibility and to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of the available FC tests.
Keywords: fecal calprotectin, diagnostic accuracy, fecal markers of inflammation, inflammatory bowel diseases
Mustafayev I.I., Ismayilova N.R.
RAMADAN FASTING AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
Abstract: The review of the presented literature provides information on the management of cardiovascular diseases during Ramadan fasting, risk stratification in patients, possible risks of drugs used and ways to eliminate these risks.
Keywords: fasting, cardiovascular disease, risk stratification
PREDIABETES: DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
Abstract: The article provides an overview of prediabetes, which precedes diabetes mellitus. It is at this stage that macro- and microvascular complications of diabetes develop. However, it is not always possible to identify this condition, since people with prediabetes have almost no clinical symptoms. At the same time, it is possible to suspect prediabetes. The article presents diagnostic criteria and methods of treatment of early disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. Timely detection of this pathology can prevent the development of diabetes mellitus and its complications.
Keywords: prediabetes, impaired fasting glycaemia, impaired glucose tolerance, diagnostic criteria
Gurbanova J.F., Garayeva N.Y., Akbarova-Ben-Tzvi G.H.
THE ROLE OF THROMBOPHILIC GENE VARIATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF PREECLAMPSIA
Abstract: Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and is one of the common causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease are not fully known, it is believed that immune deficiency, abnormal placentation and failure of trophoblast invasion, oxidative stress and thrombosis have a major role in the development of preeclampsia. Genetic factors of these components lead to pathological changes. This article provides information on the mechanism of development of preeclampsia and the role of thrombophilic gene variations in this process.
Keywords: preeclampsia, placenta, thrombosis, gene, polymorphism
Gasımov N.A., Hasanova S.Y., Abdullayev O.M., Farajova S.A.
EVALUATION OF THE RESULTS OF SURGICAL TREATMENT OF ACUTE DESTRUCTIVE PANCREATITIS
Abstract: Acute destructive pancreatitis during several years still ranks second, and in some regions the first place in the structure of the urgent surgical pathology, ahead of acute appendicitis and acute cholecystitis. The most common cause of the disease is excessive alcohol usage and gallstone disease, but in 10-30% of patients, the etiology of acute pancreatitis remains uncertain. The study was based on the assessment and treatment of 300 patients with acute destructive pancreatitis. To assess the condition of patients the severity and progression of the disease, dynamic monitoring of the patients' state we were used such integral methods as APACHE II and III, Balthazar, SOFA, Ranson, Glasgow-Imrie, CTSI, SARS. Differentiated approach to surgical treatment in patients with destructive pancreatitis depending on the scale of the initial lesion of the pancreas has allowed an average reduction in the number of purulent complications per patient in 4 times (from 9.7% to 2.3%), lower lethality of purulent complications 3 times (from 16.3% to 5.7%), and consequently reduce the overall mortality in 2.7 times (from 26.0% to 9.9%). During the first 7 days from the onset of the disease, the number of platelets decreased, later, as the symptoms of pancreonecrosis subsided the number of platelets increased. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was characterized by shortness of breath, dry cough, and pain behind the sternum, inadequate condition of the patient, cyanosis, and rough crepitations.
Keywords: acute destructive pancreatitis, diagnosis, integral scaling systems, platelets, acute respiratory distress syndrome
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RECURRENT PREGNANCY LOSS AND MATERNAL THROMBOPHILIA MUTATIONS
Abstract: Pregnant women with hereditary thrombophilia have an increased risk of RPL. The role of genetic thrombophilia in women with recurrent pregnancy loss have been evaluated and assumed it to be a causing factor for recurrent pregnancy loss and other reproductive complications, which includes Factor V Leiden mutation, Prothrombin, MTHFR and PAİ 4G/5G mutation. In this study we aimed to investigate the prevalence of these molecular defects in subjects with a history of early RPL. 35 women with one or more consecutive unexplained first trimester miscarriages were detected. The presence of these mutations was assessed by polymerase chain reaction analysis. We detected a combined mutation of one or more genes in 33 women, 20% of patients with at least one homozygous mutation (7 women), oonly two women (5.7%) did not have any thrombophilic mutation. These results suggest that thrombophilic mutations have an important role in etiology of RPL.
Keywords: thrombophilia, recurrent pregnancy losses, preeclampsia, anticoagulant treatment
ULTRASONIC DIAGNOSTICS OF TUMORS AND TUMO-LIKE FORMATIONS OF THE OVARIAN IN PREGNANT WOMEN
Abstract: The artice describes the features of the echographic structure and blood flow parameters of the most common ovarian tumors and tumor-like derivatives during pregnancy. 41 pregnant women were included in the research from 14 weeks to 22 weeks that, in 23 patients of them ovarian tumor-like derivatives, in 11 patients of them true benign tumor, in 7 patients new malignant tumors of ovaries were visualized. In all patients, US was performed at the first time of application during the screening period. During echography, attention was paid to the localization of the tumor, its shape, contours, boundaries, ratio with surrounding tissues, dimensions, internal structure, thickness of the wall and partitions, echogenicity. During CDM and dopplerometry, the presence of vascularization zones inside the derivative, their localization and the nature of blood flow were evaluated. As a result of US, we have given an opinion about the presence of ovarian tumorlike derivatives and true benign/malignant tumors in pregnant women in the early stages of gestation. The performed US showed that ovarian tumor-like derivatives and echographic images of tumors are different, their dopplerometry and diagnosis, especially during pregnancy, have specific characteristics.
Keywords: pregnant women, ovarian tumors, ovarian tumor-like derivatives, US
RESULTS OF STUDIES OF COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN PLANNING DENTAL IMPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH ADENTIA
Abstract: Computed tomography is an accurate study of determining bone density at the site of the proposed implantation. Local bone density has a predominant influence on the primary stability of the implant, which is an important factor for the success of the treatment. On the basis of indicators of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, the relationship between the state of the skeletal system and the coefficient of absorption of jaw density - indicators on the Hounsfield scale was studied. There is a directly proportional relationship between the data of densitometry of double X-ray absorptiometry of the axial skeleton and the density of the jaws.
Keywords: dental implants, CBCT, bone density, dual energy radiographic X-ray, Hounsfield index
Irismetov M.E., Ni G.V., Usmonov F.M., Kadirov S.S., Soliev S.M.
ENDOSCOPIC SURGERY FOR THE TREATMENT AND DIAGNOSIS OF HAGLUND'S DEFORMITY AND ACHILLES BURSITIS
Abstract: In presented article the history of terminology, the mechanism of occurrence of impingement syndrome with the appearance of bone exostosis and Achilles bursitis, and the first steps in the diagnosis and treatment of Haglund's deformity and Achilles bursitis are considered. The results of endoscopic treatment of 40 patients with Haglund's deformity and achilobursitis are described. Clinical methods and methods of radiation diagnostics were used to examine patients.
Keywords: Haglund's deformity, achillodenitis, achillobursitis, endoscopy, calcaneus, calcaneal tendon
Mehdiyev T.V., Ahmedova Z.G., Abdiyeva Y.J.
IDENTIFICATION OF RISK FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS
Abstract: The article provides information about the research conducted in connection with the detection of risk factors that play a role in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The study included 2567 DM type one and type two patients aged 18-75 years who were treated at the Central Hospital of Sheki Region 2015-2020. The frequency of detection of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and vision-threatening diabetic retinopathy (DRVT) in relation to the types, course and duration of diabetes, as well as comorbid conditions, was studied. The study showed that there was a direct correlation between long-term hyperglycemia and the detection of DR, and DR was observed in DM1 patients (48.1%) and DM2 patients (31.2%). Due to the increase in the duration of diabetes, the frequency of PDR and DRVT in patients with diabetes mellitus type one (18.9%) was higher than that of patients with diabetes mellitus type two (8.3%). Except for nephropathy and neuropathy, high AT, obesity, dyslipidemia, and other risk factors were noted to be more common in DM2 patients than DM1 patients were.
Keywords: diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2, diabetic retinopathy, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia
THE RATIO OF THE LENGTH OF THE LABYRINTH SEGMENT TO THE LENGTH AND WIDTH OF THE SKULL IN VARIOUS CRANIOTYPIC FORMS OF THE SKULL
Abstract: The aim of the study was to study the ratio of the length of the labyrinthine part of the facial canal to the length and width of skulls with different cranial indices, as well as different age groups. Material and methods. The material for the study was 133 tomograms taken from the archives of the radiological department and the department of radiation diagnostics and therapy of the Educational and Surgical Clinic of the Azerbaijan Medical University. The material is divided according to age groups. All skulls are divided into brachiocranes (80.0 and above), dolichocranes (74.9 and below) and mesocranes (75.0-79.9) according to the cranial index. The length of the labyrinth segment of the facial canal was measured in the axial (sagittal) and coronal projections of the tomogram slices. Research results. Comparison of the ratio of the length of the labyrinth segment to the length of the skull between age groups shows that the difference is significant on the right side (PH=0.024) in brachiocranial skulls and on the left side (PH=0.008) in dolichocranial skulls. In mesocranial skulls, this ratio does not have significant differences. The difference in the ratio of the length of the labyrinth segment to the width of the skull is also noted on the right in brachiocranial skulls and on the left in dolichocranial skulls. Statistical analysis of this indicator did not reveal a significant difference in mesocranial skulls. Conclusions. Thus, the difference in the ratio of the length of the labyrinth segment to the length and width of the skull revealed asymmetry, which was on the right side of the skulls of the brachiocranial type and on the left side of the dolichocranial type. In mesocranial-type skulls, statistical differences in these parameters were not found either in age groups or on the right and left sides.
Keywords: facial canal, labyrinth segment, brachiocrane, mesocrane, dolichocrane
ABOUT VIRAL HEPATITIS A
Abstract: The article discusses the general features of viral hepatitis A, which is widespread among children and adolescents. Viral hepatitis A is an acute infectious disease transmitted by the fecal-oral mechanism, which is mostly asymptomatic and usually results in recovery. The causative agent is enterovirus of type 72 related to the family of Picarnoviridae, genus heparnovirus. It is an Anthroponosis disease. It spreads through water, food, and household – contact ways. The incubation period is in average 15-20 days. Catarrhal, dyspeptic, asthenovegetative, arthralgic and mixed syndromes occur in the prodormal period. In the period of jaundice, the skin and mucous membranes turn yellow, the color of urine darkens, and the color of feces turns white. Complications are very rare. The prognosis is good, 90-95% of patients result in complete recovery. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is used for specific diagnostics. Anti-AHV IgM is detected in blood serum by enzyme immune analysis (IFA). Treatment is pathogenetic and symptomatic. Havrix vaccine is used for prevention.
Keywords: viral hepatitis A, etiology, clinical course, treatment
Gasimova F.N., Musayeva A.V., Agayev A.R., Mehdiyeva A.R., Qafarli S.E., Mahammadaliyeva M.V.
SYSTEMIC DAMAGES OF SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA
Abstract: The article presents the results of a clinical observation of a rapidly progressive course of systemic scleroderma (SSD) in a 45-year-old woman. The anamnesis, the clinical picture of the disease, the results of laboratory and instrumental studies are presented. Despite the adequate examination and treatment prescribed to the patient and based on the fact that she has not taken treatment for a long time, she has already developed complications and irreversible changes. Timely and targeted examination and treatment of SSDs allows you to control the course of the disease.
Keywords: systemic scleroderma, internal organs, Raynaud's syndrome, sclerodactyly, interstitial pulmonary fibrosis
Sardarli F.Z., Hasanova M.Q., Bakhtiyarova L.B., Jabbarov Sh.M., Eminbayli Kh.R.
OCCURRENCE OF ACUTE URIC ACID NEPHROPATY IN CLIMACTERIC PERIOD OF WOMEN
Abstract: The presented article describes a typical clinical case of an overweight (body mass index – 32.4 kg/m2) climacteric patient, with periodic crises of high arterial blood pressure, treated with hestogenic drugs for a long time due to endometriosis, with advanced acute renal failure.It should be noted that the emergence of severe forms of acute uric acid nephropathy and the accompanying of this disease with acute renal failure rarely occur. However, it is appropriate to classify not only post-, but also premenopausal women who suffer from overweight, obesity and high blood pressure into the risk group due to urate damage to their kidneys and to take measures aimed at correcting metabolic disorders.
Keywords: uric acid, hiperuricemiya, acute uric acid nephropathy, premenopausal period, acute renal failure