Abstract: The article analyzes the current state of pathological obesity, one of the most common chronic diseases of the century, and the non-alcoholic steatohepatosis of the liver resulting from it, as well as the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. The diagnostic value of the body mass index, generally accepted standards of the metabolic syndrome, imaging methods, clinical and biochemical blood tests, liver biopsy, characteristic for pathological obesity are shown. The accuracy of the aforementioned diagnostic tools was determined, and as a result, a patient examination scheme was developed based on literary data.
Keywords: pathological obesity, metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic steatohepatosis of the liver, diagnosis
Abstract: The problem of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) continues to be one of the pressing issues of gastroenterology. Pancreatic lesions are common in patients with IBD and have many faces: from asymptomatic changes, elevation of pancreatic enzymes and exocrine insufficiency, acute, autoimmune and chronic pancreatitis to malignancy of the gland. In this review, we presented data on the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and drug correction of pancreatic lesions in patients with IBD. Aim: to characterize the state of the pancreatic lesions problem in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, to show differences in the clinical presentation, diagnosis and drug correction of pancreatic lesions in the framework of extraintestinal manifestations of IBD. Methods: Meta-analyzes, systematic reviews and the main points of the existing clinical guidelines and consensus presented in PubMed / Medline regarding pancreatic disorders in IBD were used to expand the topic in the review. Sources were searched for by keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, acute and chronic pancreatitis, autoimmune pancreatitis, exocrine insufficiency, hyperamylasaemia, hyperlipasaemia.
Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, acute and chronic pancreatitis, biliary pancreatitis, autoimmune pancreatitis, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, hyperamilasemia
Farajova N.A., Sadigov R.V., Aliyeva M.K.
MEXANIZMS OF GENEZIS AND FEATURES THE COURSE OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA ASSOCIATED WITH QASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE
Abstract: The paper presents current research on comorbid conditions of bronchial asthma (BA) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It has been established that BA and GERD have a common pathogenetic mechanism. Given the comorbidity, it is necessary to optimize the treatment of BA and control the disease. The study of the pathogenesis of asthma will allow a different approach to BA therapy from the point of view of the individual, to predict progression of the course and to prepare preventive measures.
Keywords: bronchial asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, pH-metry, proton pump inhibitors, risk factors
Abstract: Sitomorfology researches of oral mucosa allow to reveal immune and inflammatory changes among the patients with chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis. With the purpose of simplification and rising the informativeness this disease we conducted compared analysis of cytogram integral indicator – inflammatory index among the patients with varying degrees of severity. On the gastrointestinal tract diseases fone were checked-up 32 patients with mild and 20 patients with moderate degree of chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Obtained data allow us to reveal cytological diagnostic criterion of moderate form chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis. The inflammation index value more 1,26 characterizes moderate degree of chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
Keywords: chronic recurrent aphthous stomatitis, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, cytomorphological researches
Abstract: The article presents the results of assessing the levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in blood and urine in various experimental models of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). IC/BPS was modeled on 53 white New Zealand female rabbits weighing 1500-2000 g in various ways: Group I (n=8) – injection of 70% alcohol solution into the bladder cavity; Group II (n=7) – injection of protamine sulfate into the bladder cavity; Group III (n=8) – injection of 0.5% hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution into the bladder; Group IV (n=15) – injection of urine taken from the animal's bladder into the wall of the bladder; Group V (n=7) – introduction of 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution into the bladder wall, group VI (n=8) – intact rabbits.NGF and EGF in blood and urine were determined by ELISA method with appropriate test kits. In IC/BPS, there is a change in NGF and EGF in different versions of the experimental model, but more pronounced changes are observed in experimental IC/PBS caused by toxic substances contained in the urine. Studies of the level of NGF and EGF in animal models of IC/PBS in dynamics showed their increase. The revealed correlations indicate a cause-and-effect relationship. The presence of a correlation relationship between NGF and EGF and its enhancement with the progression of IC/BPS indicates an increase in proliferation.
Keywords: interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, bladder, experimental models, nerve growth factor, epidermal growth factor
Isaev J.I., Gadimli A.I.
STUDY OF THE DISTRIBUTION AREA AND RAW-MATERIAL BASE OF GENTIANA SEPTEMFIDA L.
Abstract: In the flora of Azerbaijan, 14 species of the genus Gentiana are found in various geobotanical areas. One of the seven types of Gentiana with a great raw material base is the G. septemfida plant. The plant is mainly found in Gusar, Guba, Sheki, Gakh and Ismayilli districts, at 1700-2500 m high, in subalpine meadows. Herb of Gentiana septemfida plants involved in the research will be used as raw material. The raw material reserves of the plant have been identified in some specific areas. The productivity of raw materials has been determined by the field method. As a result of carried-out researches it has been determined that in the territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan there are 542 hectares of mass spreading areas of Gentiana septemfida plants with 29.8 tonnes of the biological reserves of the plant, 20.2 tonnes of the available reserves and 4.03 tonnes of the annual supply.
Keywords: Crested gentian, reserve study research, biological reserve, annual supply
Abstract: Since 2013 has performed 520 arthroscopic surgeries for damage of knee joint. In 350 patients, treatment results were studied up to 5 years or more. The average age of patients was 35 years. Patients complained of pain, restriction of motion and a feeling of blockage in the knee joint, as well as impaired supportability of the injured lower limb. In 101 patients, knee damage was accompanied by varicose veins of the lower extremities, 35 patients underwent simultaneous operations, and the rest of the group received conservative treatment for varicose veins and surgical treatment for damage to the knee joint. The Lysholm score for patients with isolated meniscus injuries after 4-6 weeks was 91±4.4 points, and for patients with chondromalacia, on average, 86.3±3.6 points. The clinical results of simultaneous operations significantly exceeded the results of those patients who received conservative treatment for varicose veins, this fact requires further study.
Keywords: knee joint damage, varicose veins, combined injuries, minimally invasive knee joint surgery
Abstract: AIM: Study of clinical-neurophysiological features in patients with vertebral radiculopathies and justification of rehabilitation treatment in patients of this category. Methodology: The study was conducted on 97 patients of age from 22 to 69. Patients were divided into three groups. The first – control group included 33 patients who were treated by using interferential current therapy as a treatment. The second–control group included 32 patients who were treated by using spine traction. The third–experimental group included 32 patients who were treated by using the spine traction and interference current therapy on the same day. The course of treatment lasted 10-12 days. Several clinical tests and questionnaires were used. Results: The study of the clinical manifestations of vertebral radiculopathy showed that it is manifested by pain syndrome, weakness, sensory and reflex loss. The results of the study indicate that the use of interference therapy in combination with stretching the spine in patients with vertebrogenic lumbosacral radiculopathy has a positive effect on the course of the disease, on the state of the segmental-peripheral neuromotor apparatus, helps to reduce the severity of pain syndrome, symptoms of tension (p<0.001 ), an increase in the volume of movement (p<0.001).
Keywords: vertebral radiculopathy, electroneuromyography, interference therapy, spinal traction
Abstract: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the 4th leading cause of death due to cancer in the world. Worldwide, about 227,000 people die each year from PC. The reason for the aggressive course of this disease is late diagnosis, lack of specific markers, high relapse rate and high resistance to chemotherapy. In recent years, the theory that the cells responsible for processes such as chemotherapy and metastasis in cancer are cancer stem cells (CSC). According to this theory, CSCs make up about 1% of total tumor cells and have a high self-renewal ability, as well as the ability to initiate new tumor cells. One of the processes characteristic of cancer is the process of metastasis, and this process is based on the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. According to modern ideas, in the treatment of cancer, the target CSCs should be selected first. Thus, both the problem of resistance to chemotherapy and metastasis can be overcome.
Keywords: pancreatic cancer, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cancer stem cells, markers
Abstract: The article presents the results of determining the clinical features and the state of lipid metabolism in patients receiving long-term programmed hemodialysis. Examined 100 patients. 88 (88.0±3.2) patients had an arteriovenous fistula, and 12 (12.0±3.2) patnts had an indwelling catheter installed. 26 (26.0±4.4) patients received hemodialysis treatment in terms of 3 to 5 years, 41 (41.0±4.9) patients from 6 to 10 years, and 33 (33.0±4.7) patients. It was revealed that there is a statistically significant difference between the values of high- and low-density lipoproteins in the group with a hemodialysis duration of 3-5 years. Some lipid parameters are statistically significantly different in all groups of patients depending on the duration of hemodialysis treatment (t≥2.0, p≤0.01).
Keywords: hemodialysis, renal failure, clinical parameters, lipid metabolism
Abstract: The aim of the study was to study the model of territorial registration of patients with chronic renal failure and analyze the etiological characteristics of patients on its basis. The register includes Chronic Kidney Disease (IHD) as a unit that is mainly used in the sense of chronic renal failure. The study included 1407 patients with grade 2-5 CKD. Based on the registration of the register, the etiological structure of patients with COPD can be visually analyzed with quantitative accuracy, which shows the effectiveness of the new patient registration system.
Keywords: chronic kidney disease, register, regional registration, statistics
Abstract: The type of constitution of the female body includes all the body traits inherited from parents or acquired in the process of intrauterine and extra uterine development, as well as the body's resistance and ability to respond to external and internal influences. During 2018, we conducted a study to analyze the constitutional type of women with and without infectious complications. The study did not find a clear association between infectious complications during pregnancy and the patients constitution.
Keywords: postnatal period, infectious complications, endometritis, age, constitutional type
HOW TO OVERCOME A CYTOKINE STORM IN COVID-19 PATIENTS
Abstract: Currently, a new coronavirus, SARS‑CoV‑2, is raging all over the world, affecting a huge number of people, causing the life-threatening disease COVID-19 ("COronaVIrus Disease 2019") with primary damage to the lungs. In response to a viral infection, there is a powerful release by the immune system of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukins IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10. Overexpression of the wide range of proinflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 can turn into a cytokine storm and or “cytokine release syndrome,” which proceeds to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cytokine storm - is an excessive inflammatory reaction of the body to the introduction of the virus, which leads to a severe course of infection and is accompanied by tissue damage, in particular the lung, and organs, with a possible fatal outcome. IL-6 blockers – tocilizumab, sarilumab and olokizumab, an IL-1β inhibitor – canakinumab, targeted drugs – tofacitinib and baricitinib, as well as glucocorticoids (GC) are used to treat the cytokine storm in COVID-19.
Keywords: coronavirus, COVID-19, cytokine storm, pro-inflammatory cytokines
Abstract: The offered article presents the results of a comparative analysis of the clinical and instrumental investigations of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2) and its combination with metabolic syndrome (MS) with a normal and pathologically altered ratio of the intima-media complex thickness to the interadventitial diameter (IMCT/IAD) of the common carotid artery. It was found that in patients with a pathologically altered IMCT/IAD ratio, pathological changes in the lipid spectrum, plasma concentrations of homocysteine and endotheliin-1 were significantly more pronounced. Thus, the interrelation between the remodeling of the main arteries and the clinical course of the disease in patients with DM-2 and its combination with MS has been demonstrated.
Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, lipid spectrum, endothelial dysfunction
Abstract: The rapid spread of the SOVID-19 virus and the high number of infections put a heavy burden on health care in developed countries. In many countries, medical care and anti-epidemic measures involve specialists with experience working in emergency solutions. However, when the situation became extremely tense, they turned to these specialists. Emergencies have been declared in many countries to prevent the rapid spread of COVID-19. In this case, the situation in maternity hospitals should be under special control. The author discusses the issues of childbirth in pregnant women infected with the virus during the coronavirus pandemic, the selection of optimal methods. Based on the recommendations of world-renowned experts and organizations, adapted recommendations for obstetricians and gynecologists have been developed.
Keywords: COVID-19, childbirth, caesarean section, protective equipment, monitoring
Abstract: Duodenal ulcer is the second most common digestive disease. The presented article describes surgical treatment – reconstruction of various complications of gastroduodenoanastomosis peptic ulcer in 2 patients who underwent resection of 2/3 of the stomach using the Billroth-2 method for duodenal ulcer in different clinics. Peptic ulcer of gastroduodenoanastomosis with external intestinal fistula was observed in 1 patient at the age of 55 years and peptic ulcer of gastroduodenoanastomosis penetrating into the anterior abdominal wall in another patient at the age of 23 years. The article discusses the criteria for surgical treatment and reconstructive surgery in both severe patients. Both patients underwent repeated resection of the stomach and reconstructive surgery – application of gastroenteroanastomosis using the RU method. Thus, with resection of the stomach due to duodenal ulcers, as well as with resection of 2/3 of the stomach according to the Billroth-2 method, more serious complications arise if the volume of operation is chosen incorrectly, and these patients must be re-operated without fail. Patients who underwent a resection of the stomach with subsequent developing various complications can get good results and return to normal life when performing reconstructive operations after appropriate examinations and complete preoperative preparation.
Keywords: duodenum, ulcer, reconstructive surgery, fistula, penetration, anastomosis, conservative and surgical treatment